Assignment: Journal: Leadership Principles

When you think of a great leader, who stands out to you? Pete Frates (ALS Foundation), Pope Francis, Beatrice Mtetwa (human rights lawyer of Zimbabwe), Bill and Melinda Gates (foundation focused on health care and poverty), and Sir Ganesh Dutt (longest serving minister in the British Empire) are examples of people who are often seen as great leaders. What do these leaders, if anything, have in common? What leadership principles do you possess that would make you a great leader?

For this Journal Assignment, review the leadership principles in your course text. Then, select a leadership style assessment from the links in the resources and perform a self-assessment. Finally, reflect on the characteristics of managers vs. leaders.

By Day 7

Post an assessment, in 750–1,000 words, of your leadership style. Explain how your leadership style relates to the leadership principles in the course text. Explain how the principles relate to your leadership style as a current or future leader of a particular organization. Describe what makes a good manager and leader. Evaluate whether a leader needs to be a manager and why or why not. Provide examples.



Study More Efficiently by Using some of the Memory Concepts (Assignment 1)

Go to

Or similar web site on more efficient studying.

Scroll down to “Strategies”, and pick one that seems to appeal to you.

Relate the specific strategy to one of the major memory principles in the text.

You may wish to actually try the strategy on something that you have to learn for a course.

Post your two or three paragraphs in the Discussion Forum provided. Extra credit if you actually tried it out, and include a short report of its effectiveness for you.


Conditioning at Mickey D’s  (Assignment 2)

What do parents do, at a fast food restaurant, to encourage desirable behaviors and discourage undesirable behaviors? Are the principles of operant conditioning being used? You are to visit any fast food restaurant (McDonald’s, Burger King, Arby’s, Wendy’s, Taco Bell, etc.) You are to observe how parents use the principles of operant conditioning, where they misuse them, and where they fail to use them but should. You can observe in the main dining area or the play area, if they have one, or both. You may not include any drive up observations. Then briefly describe one outstanding example for any three of the following categories. You can use three different subjects or use one subject for more than one example. You only need one OUTSTANDING (clear, definite) example for each of the three principles you choose.

There will be three sections to your paper.

Section 1 – Description of restaurant (including if it has a play area), date and time of observation.

Section 2 – Three observations. Each observation labeled with principle of operant conditioning at the beginning. Description of ss (adults and children) including an estimate of age, gender, race. What did you observe that demonstrated the principle being discussed? How effective was the technique?

Section 3 – Comments, including misuse or failure to use, questions that came up, surprises.

PRINCIPLES: Any three of the following four.

1. Positive reinforcement of DESIRED behaviors.

2. Negative reinforcement for failing to show DESIRED behaviors.

3. Punishment for UNDESIRED behaviors.

4. Extinction of UNDESIRED behaviors by withdrawing attention or reinforcing stimuli.



Eyewitness Testimony Assignment (Assignment 3)

First, read about Elizabeth Loftus and eyewitness testimony on pages 228-229.

Then go to Elizabeth Loftus’ webpage and read “Our Changeable Memories: Legal and Practical Implications.”

Next, go to Psychology Professor, Gary Wells, homepage on eyewitness memory. When you get there click on the “Click here to take the Wells eyewitness test” and take the short test. (Note: it moved a little slow when we did it so be patient).

After taking the Wells test, go to some of the links on Wells page and read the news stories and articles on eyewitness testimony.

Now, after you have done your research write two page paper about eyewitness testimony and memory. Here are some questions to think about to help you get started:

  • How accurate is eyewitness      testimony?
  • What are the problems with      eyewitness testimony as it relates to memories?
  • Can people actually have      false memories? What could cause this?
  • What are the implications      for society?
  • How does this apply to our      legal system? Do you still have faith in eyewitness testimony during a      trial?

Enjoy your research and we look forward to reading your papers!


Schedules of Reinforcement Assignment (Assignment 4)

Go to

and your text for a review of the various schedules of reinforcement.

The two dimentions along which to vary the availability of reinforcement are TIME and Number of Responses.

Interval schedules are based on time passing, like a weekly pay check (Fixed interval).

Ratio schedules are based on the number of responses that an organism makes.

The literature suggests that behavior is partially determined by the schedule of reinforcement that we use. With kids, training dogs, or with our spouse or work peers, often the WAY we give a reward is as important as the reward itself. Can you apply this to your everyday life?

Using whatever resources are available to you, give an example and determine the ADVANTAGES and DISADVANTAGES OF EACH OF THE FOLLOWING SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT:

Continuous Reinforcement Schedule

Fixed Interval Schedule

Fixed Ratio Schedule

Variable Ratio Schedule

Social Influence Journal

To prepare for this journal, watch Social Influence (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. (2017). Reflect on this topic.  Specifically, consider concepts other than those covered in discussions and/or assignments.  Explain how a particular theoretical perspective applies to your own experience, personal or professional.  Describe the social situation in the context of social psychological theory and research, and appraise the factors that impact your behavior as well as the role your own actions play in producing and perpetuating the situation.  Your journal should be approximately one single-spaced page and include at least one reference to a required course reading.



Society for Personality and Social Psychology. (2017, June 27). Social influence (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. [Video file]. Retrieved from

  • (4:27) This video provides information about social influence. It will assist you in your Social Influence Journal this week.

The Social World: Presentation

Thus far, we have considered the major themes of social psychology: social thinking, social relations, and social influence.  In this interactive assignment, we will integrate knowledge from all three areas to provide a comprehensive analysis of a social movement, issue, event, or idea.

To inform your thinking on this topic, begin by reading “The Self System in Reciprocal Determinism” (Bandura, 1978) and “Social Action” (Synder & Omoto, 2007), and peruse The Stanford SPARQ Solutions Catalog (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..  In addition, review “Ten Simple Rules for Making Good Oral Presentations” (Bourne, 2007) and “Ten Simple Rules for a Good Poster Presentation” (Erren & Bourne, 2007).

Then, identify a current or historical social movement (e.g., the Tea Party, Black Lives Matter, the Reformation, etc.), issue (e.g., gay marriage, school choice, abortion, slavery, etc.), event (e.g., the 2016 Presidential election, the Rwandan genocide, the Bubonic Plague, etc.), or idea (e.g., democracy, the nuclear family, peace, etc.).  Create a multimedia presentation (e.g., a video, poster, etc.) that depicts the selected topic in enough detail that classmates, even with no prior knowledge, will gain a basic understanding.  (For additional guidance, review a guide for creating Presentations (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., available through the Ashford Writing Center.).  Your presentation should apply psychological insight from at least two of the three areas covered thus far in the course (social thinking, social relations, and/or social influence) to analyze relevant social factors.  In your presentation, interpret social psychological theory and research, including the concept of reciprocal determinism in relation to this social movement, issue, event, or idea.  Describe research methods used to investigate relevant phenomena and summarize actual or hypothetical applications of social psychological insight.   Employ knowledge from social psychology to identify specific careers or disciplines that might be especially well suited to addressing the underlying issues in your example.  Be sure to maintain an objective stance.  (In other words, if you select a social issue, avoid sharing your opinion regarding the “right” or “wrong” view.  Your classmates should not be able to determine your personal views based on what you post.).

You must include a both a multimedia component (e.g., link to or embedded PowerPoint, screencastPreview the document, video recordingPreview the document, etc.) and a transcript or other written component that fully explains the audio or visual elements. Please utilize APA style to format your transcript or other written component. Upload the completed assignment (including both the multimedia component and the written component) into Waypoint.  Next week, you will share your presentation with your classmates in a discussion forum.

Utilize a minimum of five credible scholarly sources to inform your thinking on the topic, in addition to required course resources as applicable.  Additional credible references are encouraged.

Note to Students: This assignment requires that you produce a visual presentation, supply a spoken audio narrative, and to listen the audio narrative of others.  Note you are also asked to provide a transcript of your presentation.  If you have a documented disability accommodation that might interfere with your ability to complete this assignment, you may contact your instructor to develop a comparable alternative assignment.  If you have other issues that you feel may be a barrier to your ability to complete this course or this assignment please contact the Office of Access and Wellness at:


Bandura, A. (1978). The self system in reciprocal determinism. American Psychologist, 33(4), 344-358.

Bourne, P. E. (2007). Ten simple rules for making good oral presentations. PLoS Computational Biology, 3(4), e77. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.0030077

Erren, T. C., & Bourne, P. E. (2007). Ten simple rules for a good poster presentation. PLoS Computational Biology, 3(5), e102.

Snyder, M., & Omoto, A. M. (2007). Social action. In A. W. Kruglanski  & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Social Psychology: Handbook of Basic Principles, (2nd Ed), 940-962.

For this assignment you do not need to do a screen-cast!!! Just submit a transcript outlying each power point slide in detail.

Elements Of A Successful Therapeutic Relationship Paper

Write a 1,200-1,500-word essay that describes the characteristics and roles you hope to embody as a counselor and the counselor dispositions that you want to bring with you. You may write in the first person for this assignment. Include the following in your paper:

  1. Your role as the therapist in the counseling process within community and private mental health systems
  2. Refer to the Counselor Dispositions. Which of these dispositions will you incorporate into the counseling relationship and how?
  3. Counseling skills you plan to practice for building rapport with clients
  4. Strategies to advocate for persons with mental health issues

Learning Disability

The paper will be about learning disability (children and adults)

A 5-6 page (including cover and reference pages so about 3-4 of actual writing) research paper APA style, 12 pt font double spaced. You must use and cite at least 2 sources that are from peer-reviewed articles or scientific publications, you may also use the DSM. Any websites used must be in addition to the two articles. You are to adequately cover your diagnosis including the etiology, course of the disorder, prevalence in the population, and the recommended course of treatment. You should also identify one or two other variables to focus on in your paper like how effective a specific treatment was when applied to a specific subset of the population with this disorder or other cultural factors or any other interesting thing associated with your disorder so that it does not read as just a regurgitation of someone else’s writing aka: the book. The paper will be submitted via turnitin on canvas according to the deadline associated with your topic. I will not accept it via email or print.

  • Common Deductions
    • Not writing about your topic – 50 %
    • Late- 20%
    • Not APA or incorrect citing- 10-20%
    • Wrong sources- 10-20%
    • Poor grammar and spelling- 5-10%
    • Poor flow, choppy sentences, poor structure- 10%
    • Not adequately covering the topic- 20%
    • Plagiarism- 100% deduction aka: 0 points

Research Proposal

The written research proposal will be created based on a narrowly defined aspect of the topic selected in Week One. A research proposal is a detailed plan for a specific study to be conducted at a future time. It is the document which potential researchers typically submit to an institutional review board (IRB) for ethical review and approval, and/or to funding agencies to secure financial support for a research effort. Because it is a plan for research which has not yet been conducted, the Methods section should be written in the future tense and should not contain any hypothetical results. The paper must address all of the components required in the Methods section of a research proposal. The following actions must be completed.

  • State the research question and/or hypothesis.
  • Briefly compare the characteristics of the major research paradigms used in previous studies on the chosen topic. Introduce the specific approach (qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods), research design, sampling strategy, data collection procedures, and data analysis techniques to be used in this study. Provide a short explanation as to why the selected procedures are more feasible than other alternatives for the research topic.
  • Describe any relevant variables, measures, and statistical tests.
  • Apply ethical principles and professional standards to the proposed psychological research. Provide an analysis of any ethical issues that may arise and explain how these issues will be resolved.

The following headings for the required sections and subsections must appear in the paper. In accordance with APA style, all references listed must be cited in the text of the paper.

  • Introduction
    • Introduce the research topic, explain why it is important, and present an appropriately and narrowly defined research question and/or hypothesis.
  • Literature Review
    • Evaluate the published research on the chosen topic including a minimum of three peer-reviewed articles. Summarize the current state of knowledge on the topic, making reference to the findings of previous research studies. Briefly mention the research methods that have previously been used to study the topic. State whether the proposed study is a replication of a previous study or a new approach employing methods that have not been used before. Be sure to properly cite all sources in APA style.
  • Methods
    • Design – Create a feasible research design that incorporates appropriate methods to address the topic. Indicate whether the approach of the proposed study is qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods. Identify the specific research design, and indicate whether it is experimental or non-experimental. Evaluate the chosen design and explain why this design is feasible and appropriate for the topic and how it will provide the information needed to answer the research question. Cite sources on research methodology to support these choices. Include a minimum of two peer-reviewed sources.
    • Participants – Identify and describe the sampling strategy to be used to recruit participants for the study. Estimate the number of participants needed, and explain why this sampling method is appropriate for the research design and approach.
    • Procedure/Measures – Apply the scientific method by describing the steps to be taken in carrying out the study. Identify any test, questionnaire, or measurement instrument to be utilized. If an existing published instrument will be employed, briefly describe it and cite the source. If an original questionnaire, survey, or test will be created for the project, describe the types of information that will be collected with it and explain how the validity and reliability of the instrument will be established. If such an instrument will not be used, describe how the data will be collected for the study.
    • Data Analysis – Describe the statistical techniques (if quantitative) or the analysis procedure (if qualitative) to be used to analyze the data. Cite at least one peer-reviewed source on the chosen analysis technique.
    • Ethical Issues – Analyze the impact of ethical concerns on the proposed study, such as confidentiality, deception, informed consent, potential harm to participants, conflict of interest, IRB approval, etc. After analyzing the ethical issues that apply to the project, indicate what will be done to handle these concerns.
  • Conclusion
    • Briefly summarize the major points of the paper and reiterate why the proposed study is needed.

Attention Students: The Masters of Arts in Psychology program is utilizing the Pathbrite portfolio tool as a repository for student scholarly work in the form of signature assignments completed within the program. After receiving feedback for this Research Proposal, please implement any changes recommended by the instructor, go to Pathbrite, and upload the revised Research Proposal to the portfolio. Use the Pathbrite Quick-Start Guide to create an account if you do not already have one. The upload of signature assignments will take place after completing each course. Be certain to upload revised signature assignments throughout the program as the portfolio and its contents will be used in other courses and may be used by individual students as a professional resource tool. See the Pathbrite website for information and further instructions on using this portfolio tool.

The Research Proposal

  • Must be five double-spaced pages (excluding title page and references page) in length and formatted according to APA style
  • Must include a title page with the following:
    • Title of paper
    • Student’s name
    • Course name and number
    • Instructor’s name
    • Date submitted
  • Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought and provide a thorough explanation of all required issues.
  • Must utilize a minimum of six peer-reviewed sources from the Ashford University Library.
  • Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  • Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as