Study More Efficiently by Using some of the Memory Concepts (Assignment 1)
Go to http://www.adprima.com/studyout.htm
Or similar web site on more efficient studying.
Scroll down to “Strategies”, and pick one that seems to appeal to you.
Relate the specific strategy to one of the major memory principles in the text.
You may wish to actually try the strategy on something that you have to learn for a course.
Post your two or three paragraphs in the Discussion Forum provided. Extra credit if you actually tried it out, and include a short report of its effectiveness for you.
Conditioning at Mickey D’s (Assignment 2)
What do parents do, at a fast food restaurant, to encourage desirable behaviors and discourage undesirable behaviors? Are the principles of operant conditioning being used? You are to visit any fast food restaurant (McDonald’s, Burger King, Arby’s, Wendy’s, Taco Bell, etc.) You are to observe how parents use the principles of operant conditioning, where they misuse them, and where they fail to use them but should. You can observe in the main dining area or the play area, if they have one, or both. You may not include any drive up observations. Then briefly describe one outstanding example for any three of the following categories. You can use three different subjects or use one subject for more than one example. You only need one OUTSTANDING (clear, definite) example for each of the three principles you choose.
There will be three sections to your paper.
Section 1 – Description of restaurant (including if it has a play area), date and time of observation.
Section 2 – Three observations. Each observation labeled with principle of operant conditioning at the beginning. Description of ss (adults and children) including an estimate of age, gender, race. What did you observe that demonstrated the principle being discussed? How effective was the technique?
Section 3 – Comments, including misuse or failure to use, questions that came up, surprises.
PRINCIPLES: Any three of the following four.
1. Positive reinforcement of DESIRED behaviors.
2. Negative reinforcement for failing to show DESIRED behaviors.
3. Punishment for UNDESIRED behaviors.
4. Extinction of UNDESIRED behaviors by withdrawing attention or reinforcing stimuli.
Eyewitness Testimony Assignment (Assignment 3)
First, read about Elizabeth Loftus and eyewitness testimony on pages 228-229.
Then go to Elizabeth Loftus’ webpage and read “Our Changeable Memories: Legal and Practical Implications.”
Next, go to Psychology Professor, Gary Wells, homepage on eyewitness memory. When you get there click on the “Click here to take the Wells eyewitness test” and take the short test. (Note: it moved a little slow when we did it so be patient).
After taking the Wells test, go to some of the links on Wells page and read the news stories and articles on eyewitness testimony.
Now, after you have done your research write two page paper about eyewitness testimony and memory. Here are some questions to think about to help you get started:
- How accurate is eyewitness testimony?
- What are the problems with eyewitness testimony as it relates to memories?
- Can people actually have false memories? What could cause this?
- What are the implications for society?
- How does this apply to our legal system? Do you still have faith in eyewitness testimony during a trial?
Enjoy your research and we look forward to reading your papers!
Schedules of Reinforcement Assignment (Assignment 4)
Go to http://www.psychology.uiowa.edu/Faculty/wasserman/Glossary/schedules.html
and your text for a review of the various schedules of reinforcement.
The two dimentions along which to vary the availability of reinforcement are TIME and Number of Responses.
Interval schedules are based on time passing, like a weekly pay check (Fixed interval).
Ratio schedules are based on the number of responses that an organism makes.
The literature suggests that behavior is partially determined by the schedule of reinforcement that we use. With kids, training dogs, or with our spouse or work peers, often the WAY we give a reward is as important as the reward itself. Can you apply this to your everyday life?
Using whatever resources are available to you, give an example and determine the ADVANTAGES and DISADVANTAGES OF EACH OF THE FOLLOWING SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT:
Continuous Reinforcement Schedule
Fixed Interval Schedule
Fixed Ratio Schedule
Variable Ratio Schedule