Era of First Peoples

In the Essay you will be asked to trace developments in the PNW from the pre-contact period into the settlement period. In studying for the essay, make sure to have a solid understanding of change over time and the forces that drove that change. Think about the following categories of change: social (including gender and race), economic, political (both domestic and international), cultural, and environmental (including natural resources). You may want to consider that expanse of history as composed of three broad sub-periods: the Era of First Peoples, The Era of Contact and Fur Trade, and the early decades of the Era of Settlement. (250 words)


History To 1877

A Short Paper Assignment allows you to demonstrate your research skills to your instructor and to receive feedback that will benefit you when you write research papers for future courses. With this assignment, you will learn how to do proper research and write a short paper.

You are allowed to choose your own topic, as long as it pertains to the subject of this course. If you have any questions on subject matter, please contact your instructor. This is your opportunity to look a little deeper at a subject that interests you.

This short paper is at least three full, double-spaced pages of text (Times New Roman, font size 12, one inch margins) and you must consult a minimum of two academically credible sources. Page count does not include the title page or works cited/bibliography pages. Your bibliography and citations may be in APA format. Students majoring in history must use Chicago Style format.

The short paper needs to be turned in through the assignment section for grading. If you use any of the information from your sources word-for-word, you must cite the source by using endnotes, footnotes, or parenthetical citations. If you read the information and write it in your own words and it is not common knowledge, then you must cite the source because you are paraphrasing someone’s information.

The short paper must include a cover page with your name, course number and course title, instructor’s name, and date. You must also include a bibliography at the end of your paper. While composing your paper, use proper English. Do not use abbreviations, contractions, passive voice, or first/ second person (I, you, we, our, etc). Before submitting your paper, check your grammar and use spell check. Remember, the way you talk is not the way you write a paper. Please label your paper as follows: lastnamefirstnameHIST101ShortPaper.

Wealth and income projections

From Race, Partisanship, and the Rise of Income Inequality in the United States, by Paul Pierson, APSA, 2016

In this piece written for Politics Now, a publication of the American Political Science Association (the largest professional organization for political scientists in the world), Dr. Pierson lays out a compelling argument that informs us about rising inequality in the United States. According to Dr. Pierson, not only will wealth concentration split the United States into “haves” and “have-nots” but it will also further exacerbate race relations during a time of profound demographic changes. By 2044, demographers predict that for the first time in the nation’s history the non-Hispanic white population will no longer possess a majority position. In the ensuing years, the country will become increasingly multi-cultural, multi-racial, and multi-ethnic. Wealth and income projections, however, suggest that non-Hispanic whites will retain the foremost position on the economic ladder.

For purposes of this Project Assignment, let’s dispense with some formalities that will help us consider this provocative information with open minds:

  • There are great variations within all populations in the United States in wealth, status, beliefs, and experiences. So it is challenging to generalize about non-Hispanic whites, African Americans, Latino Americans, Asian Americans, Native Americans, or other groups. Let us all acknowledge this fact as we enter into our discussions.
  • Wealth, regardless of who possesses it, confers status, access, and power.
  • The ideals on which the nation was founded are not reserved for any group of Americans but are promised to everyone. These ideals, as set forth in the Preamble to the Constitution, provide the “glue” that ostensibly holds the social fabric of the nation together. Today, we are witnessing the fraying of this social fabric in ways that could threaten the viability of the American experiment.
  • Politics is about power, how it is acquired, employed, and maintained. Elected officials will go to great lengths to keep themselves in power, even if in doing so their tactics are contrary to the values of the country. The only job security an elected official has is to win reelection.


After a close reading of this first section of this article, each student will prepare and submit an essay that does the following:

Essay Part A (10 points):

In about 250 words (this is about one page, double-spaced, 12-point font, one-inch margins), please describe in your own words how this passage of Dr. Pierson’s article relates to what you have learned about American politics so far in Module 1. Be sure to make clear connections in this part of your essay.

Essay Part B (5 Points):

In about 150 words (this is about half a page, double-spaced, 12-point font, one-inch margins), write about what you have learned so far that you may not have known before or that is different from what you thought you knew.

To do well on this first installment of the Project Assignment, be sure you have followed instructions carefully and proofread for writing errors. I recommend using the free version of (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. to help you identify and correct errors.


When trying to understand the accurate definition of terrorism, various concepts need to be analyzed.

With reference to this week’s problem statement, utilize the  resources provided to you and your own research, and post your responses  to the following questions:

  • Are hate crimes acts of terrorism? Why or why not? Provide examples to support your response.
  • How important is extremism in defining terrorism? Why? What are the  characteristics of extremists that make them resemble terrorists
  • How is the definition of terrorism in the United States different  from the definition of terrorism in other parts of the world? Why is  this so?
  • Can terrorism ever be justified? Why or why not? What do you  perceive as the problems in arriving at a universal definition of  terrorism?

Cite any sources using APA format on a separate page. Let’s learn how to cite sources using APA guidelines.

terrorism and national security.

Within the religion of Islam, there are several divisions. Those who  follow the Sunni version of Islam and those who follow the Shia  interpretation are often in conflict. In the Muslim world, certain  countries are predominantly Sunni and others are predominantly Shia.  Wars have been fought over this division, including a recent 8-year war  between Iran and Iraq.

Understanding the differences between these two interpretations is helpful in understanding terrorism and national security.

For this assignment, create a 10- to 12-slide presentation in Microsoft PowerPoint that addresses the following points:

  • What are the points of conflict between Sunni and Shia Muslims? Where do their interpretations of Islam differ significantly?
  • How and when did these conflicts come into existence?
  • In what ways do they share the same beliefs? Is antipathy toward the West an automatic position?
  • Identify which nations are predominantly Sunni and which are Shia. Illustrate with a map.
  • Provide an example of at least one significant terrorist action by each branch of Islam.
  • Discuss whether counterterrorism authorities should prepare differently for Sunni terrorism than they would for Shia terrorism.

Topic 3 Required Reading

Kevin Reilly, The Human Journey, Chapter 6

Website: Wayfinders – &

Website: Pacific Migrations (click on “Next” button at bottom of each page to read all nine pages)

Primary Sources:

Website: Traditional Marshallese Stick Chart Navigation –

Website: Polynesian Stick Charts –

Discussion Prompts:

After reading Chapter 6 and the material at the websites, and viewing the videos, please make a 350-word initial post that answers the following questions about the primary sources:

Before the modern era, most Pacific Islanders navigated the Pacific by forming mental maps of their natural environment, particularly the stars and other celestial bodies, ocean swells, prevailing winds, and by observing the flight of migratory and land-based birds and island-influenced cloud cover. Many developed sophisticated memory aids like stick charts, a form of ocean and island map, what geographers today call hydrographic maps. Maps are cultural constructs and come in all forms. Maps are usually defined as two-dimensional (often printed or drawn) representations of three-dimensional space. The stick charts are made from coconut palms or pandanus reed and cowrie shells. The charts were not taken as actual maps on voyages. They were left on shore. What can the shape, construction, and layout of these stick charts tell you about the culture that produced them as well as its view of its environment? In what ways are stick charts maps? In what ways are they not?

Be sure to go beyond the technical analysis given below the stick chart images by incorporating information from the other websites and the textbook reading.